Monday, May 25, 2020

Cloning and Organ Donation - 810 Words

Imagine a small toddler who had a large plank of wood fall on him and now he has failing colon. He doesn’t have a donor to give him an organ and even if he did, his family didn’t have the money to pay for a thousand dollar colon. Problems like this, where people can’t get/afford an organ, are happening everyday. People have tried to help this situation by donating their body parts, but too many people don’t/can’t. Cloning of human body parts is a safe alternative to this problem; it can help save many children and adults. Cloning allows the organ to be the patients own duplicate, it also makes the body keep the organ, not reject it, all the while being cost efficient to ensure that people can live longer, happier and safer. Accidents, chronic illnesses, and a number of other life-threatening situations occur everyday. From all of these injuries some may people need a new organ, which most can’t get and/or afford. The reason for most people not being able to afford organs is the fact that they can get up into the tens of thousands even with insurance covering it (Jennifer Heisler). When people get the news that they have sustained a life altering injury they are not the only people affected, the people and the community around them are also affected. A real life example of this is where a man named Ed Guillen found out his mom’s kidney began to fail, Ed then started to exercise so he could donate his kidney. When Ed was deemed suitable he donated his kidney to hisShow MoreRelatedThe Cloning Debate On Cloning1227 Words   |  5 PagesEva Gaetz Sec 09 Kanchan Hulasare The Cloning Debate According to Mosby’s Medical Dictionary, the term â€Å"cloning† is defined as â€Å"a procedure for producing multiple copies of genetically identical organisms or cells or of individual genes.† Researchers have conducted several cloning experiments over the years, replicating tissues, organs, and even full organisms such as Dolly the Sheep in 1997. The history of cloning dates back to the early 1900’s when Hans Adolf Edward Dreisch studied the resultsRead MoreEssay on Organ Donation1638 Words   |  7 Pagescurrent process of procuring organs for transplantation. It will also explore technology on the horizon and alternates to donation. The waiting list for transplant surgery far exceeds the current supply. Black Market organ trade in this, as well in foreign countries is alive and well. Donation is not able to keep up with demand. We have to take measures to ensure those in the most need are taken care of. We already allow people to sell eggs, sperm an d blood why not other organs? I will attempt to showRead MoreNever Let Me Go, By Kazuo Ishiguro1714 Words   |  7 Pagesnovel â€Å"Never Let Me Go,† by Kazuo Ishiguro he addresses the issue about clones and how they grow up in an institution meant to get the students ready to conquer in a human environment. Ishiguro’s novel â€Å"Never Let Me Go† serves an approach to the â€Å"Cloning argument. In the novel a character named Kathy H was one of the primary ones who was cloned along with a few others. This helps us to answer the question of how clones should be treated in relation to human verses non-human concept, as Ishiguro attemptsRead MoreNever Let Me Go, By Kazuo Ishiguro1068 Words   |  5 Pagesthe world keeps aging, science will keep growing with the use of technology. Scientists have tried the process of cloning for many, many years and while time has passed, scientists have been increasingly getting better at cloning and thus attempting more comp licated cloning. In the 2005 novel, Never Let Me Go, human clones are created to be organ donors for humans that need an organ transplant in order to survive. Clones look like humans, have feelings like humans but are not necessarily looked atRead MoreShould Human Cloning Be Pursued? Essay810 Words   |  4 Pagessome movies, cloning in real life doesn’t produce a full grown exact replica of someone. A type of cloning that occurs naturally is when identical twins are born (â€Å"What Is Cloning?†). Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a type of cloning that has to be done in a lab. In SCNT they take the nucleolus out of an egg cell, replace it with the nucleolus of a somatic cell (body cell with two complete sets of chromosomes), and make the egg cell divide into a blastocyst (â€Å"What Is Cloning?†). There areRead MoreSecond Chance: Donor Donation Essay790 Words   |  4 PagesChance Organ donation has been a part of this world since the beginning of time, many tales have been told that body parts were taken from one person or animal and was put into another body (Organ Tissue Transplants). The first half of the twentieth century, doctors placed animal organs into human beings (Organ and Tissue Transplants). It wasn’t until doctors in Russia by the name of Dr. U. Voronoy, in the year of 1936, performed the first human-to-human kidney transplant (Organ Tissue Trans)Read MoreIs Human Cloning Legal? Essay1147 Words   |  5 PagesHuman cloning has not been legally used in humans because many people and experts are still discussing its effectiveness, worthiness and effect on humanity. Human cloning, also known as human genetic engineering, can be divided into two main types, which are therapeutic cloning, growing cloned tissue from individual, and reproductive cloning, genetically identical copy of an individual. Human cloning have drawn people’s a ttention because people are become more concerned about health problems andRead MorePersuasive Essay On Human Cloning1106 Words   |  5 Pagestime and death. With the strong development of science, humanity has found an amazing solution to this puzzle: cloning, the â€Å"aggregate of genetically identical cells or organisms asexually produced by or from a single progenitor cell or organism.† (â€Å"Clone,† n.d.) Whether or not human beings should be cloned is a controversial issue around the world. In my opinion, the research on human cloning should be a priority because of its incredible benefits in advancing the process of human evolution, an opportunityRead MoreTherapeutic Cloning Essay1412 Words   |  6 Pagesday in the United States nineteen people die from the lack of an essential organ that is not available. Each day 1500 people die of cancer in the United States. Each month, 1000 more people are added to the waiting list of 101,000 people in need of a tra nsplant surgery. These people could be living; leading ordinary lives if it was not for the medical taboo created by just the word â€Å"Cloning†. Millions of people view cloning as unethical and unscrupulous, however, majority of these people have neverRead MoreBenefits Of Organ Replacement Using Cloning Technique1237 Words   |  5 Pages1. Counter-argument: It has a great contribution to organ replacement. When scientists are dealing with organ replacement using cloning technique, they no longer use Reproductive Cloning Technique (RCT) but they use Therapeutic Cloning Technique (TCT). Both techniques require the same laboratory procedures just that in RCT, they will insert the cloned embryos into the womb to grow until birth and in TCT, they will kill the cloned embryos for the stem cell. This stem cell is what the scientists get

Thursday, May 14, 2020

The Effects Of Alcohol On Children s Relationship With...

When a Man Loves a Woman: Part Three In the textbook, Families and Change: Coping With Stressful Events and Transitions, chapter seven goes in depth to reflect on families coping with alcohol abuse. The textbook is straightforward about children with one or both alcoholic parents in treatment and recovery from alcohol abuse. As much as the substance abusing parent needs help, so do the children in the family (Price, Price and McKenry, 2010, p. 152). Relative to the Green family, the authors discuss alcohol-specific effects involving the parent’s relationship to alcohol and how these behaviors are related to their child’s behavior and cognition (Price, Price McKenry, 2010, p. 143). Simply put, there is a direct correlation between parents who abuse alcohol and the likelihood that their children will develop an addiction to alcohol. According to Price, Price and McKenry (2010), â€Å"If parental use of alcohol is associated with adolescent use, then parental recovery f rom alcoholism or cessation of alcohol-related problems should reflect a reduction in family stress and an alteration in children’s expectancies and alcohol-related behaviors† (p. 147). What this implies is that in theory, if a parent is an alcohol abuser, and their behavior reflects on to their children, then in turn the children should also adapt the same behavior when a parent ceases the use of alcohol. In a study conducted by Cheng and Lo (2010) observing alcoholic mothers and their relationships to theirShow MoreRelatedAlcohol And Substance Abuse : An Individual Behavior That Reflects Underlying Dysfunction921 Words   |  4 PagesAlcohol seeking behaviours and Substance use is an individual behavior that reflects underlying dysfunction in the family (Klagsbrun Davis, 1977; Stanton et al., 1982). Many researchers consider that the family has a crucial role in preventing delinquent behaviors and behaviors related to substance abuse. The quality of parenting has b een linked to psychological well-being, stress and social support. It was also found to be a predictor of antisocial behaviors and substance abuse (Velleman, TempletonRead MoreThe Effects Of Drug Addiction On Children1506 Words   |  7 Pagesbut it changes the lives of their family members as parents get torn apart from themselves and each other. The role of each family member begins to shape around what is in the best interest of the addict. This research paper is an overview of the effects that raising a drug addicted child has on parent’s ability to be competent parental figures. Drug addiction is a problem that is becoming much too common within families. As addiction rates have increased dramatically and drug related deaths areRead MoreThe Effects of Alcohol Abuse1472 Words   |  6 Pagesdoing things they should not. Alcohol is one of those things. Alcohol is extremely easy to get ahold of. It can be attained from anywhere; there are bars and liquor stores on every corner. One can get alcohol in grocery stores, gas stations, people can even brew it themselves if they know how. Alcohol that is commonly abused comes in a large variety ranging from weaker alcohols like wine and beer to stronger substances like tequila and vodka. When one abuses alcohol it taints the minds of even theRead MoreLong-term consequences of Child Abuse on the Society1559 Words   |  7 Pagesof Child Abuse Child abuse is the physical, emotional, or sexual mistreatment of a child by his or her parent or guardian. Many do not realize how many children are abused in their homes every day. According to a publication titled Child Maltreatment 2008, children are more likely to be the victim of child abuse and neglect than they are to be the victim of anything else (Speak-Up-Be-Safe). In fact, more than one million children in the United States alone are a victim of child abuse (WisdomRead MoreThe Cost Of Addiction / Substance Abuse Essay936 Words   |  4 PagesAnalysis of the Cost of Addiction/Substance Abuse Stevens Smith (2013) ascertain that alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs have cost $180-$484 billion dollars annually, yet that dollar estimate does not include what damage it causes to the family and victims of substance abuse users. In contrast, research indicates to use caution when deciphering the costs of substance abuse due to new data that is constantly changing (Single, 2009). Furthermore, some associated costs may not be reported becauseRead MoreAlcoholism And Its Effects On Society1099 Words   |  5 Pagesknown that alcoholism and the abuse of alcohol cause serious medical, psychiatric, social, economic and legal problems (Potkonjak, J. et al. 2005). Alcohol abuse is one of biggest problems in the United States today. It is not only a problem that affects individuals lives, but is a problem that affects society as whole. Alcoholism is the most widespread form of substances used in the United States that effecting at least 5 million people. In 21 century alcohol abuse ha s become one of the most life-threateningRead MoreParental Supervision and Adolescent Drinking Behavior1591 Words   |  7 Pagesimportant role in the lives of children. Some of these parents have a negative or positive influence on the lives of the children. Shin, Edwards, Heeren, Amodeo (2009) stated that in the United Stated nearly 3.3 million referrals were made to state and local child protective services (CPS) for assessment or investigation in 2006. Out of these million referrals, 905, 000 were judged to be victims of child abuse or neglect. Childhood maltreatment has been associated to alcohol abuse. â€Å"Although many studiesRead MoreEffects of Domestic Violence on Children908 Words   |  4 PagesEffects of Domestic Violence on Children by Mary Pelham English 1010-19 5 October 2011 Pelham i Outline I. Effects on younger children A. Feelings of deprivation Read MoreAlcoholism Essay1612 Words   |  7 Pagesearly 1920’s, alcoholism was an issue for many men, evident by the push for the Prohibition by many women at that point in time. Women wanted the 18th amendment so that their husbands would stop throwing their money away at bars, when many families lived from check to check, this was when the phrase â€Å"when you have a relationship with someone who is addicted, you have a relationship with an addiction, not a person† was coined by individuals in relationships with alcoholics. Saying that alcohol servesRead MoreFetal Alcohol Syndrome And Its Effects1712 Words   |  7 Pages Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and its Effects On a Child’s Cognitive Development Dane D. Hrencher Kansas State University Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and its Effects On a Child’s Cognitive Development Alcohol is known as one the most dangerous teratogens. Every time a pregnant woman drinks, she allows alcohol to enter her blood stream and make its way into the placenta. Unlike the mother, the fetus is unable to break down alcohol that makes the blood alcohol level of the fetus the same or

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Personality Changes From Infancy And Childhood Adulthood

Personality is conceptualised as the combination of a person’s independent experiences as well as their behaviours and actions relating to those behaviours (Kernberg, 2016). These experiences and actions result in multiple traits and characteristics that modern society uses to define a person’s identity. This essay explores how personality changes from infancy and childhood to adulthood. It will be argued that personality has the ability to be altered due to range of factors relating to increasing age and an individual’s surrounding environment and experiences. Discussion of a range of personality theories and examples of radical personality differences will further show that personalities can be changed through out life. A well known example of a personality change is known in modern society as a ‘midlife crisis’ and is found to occur amongst males aged thirty-five to sixty, more commonly referred to as middle aged. A midlife crisis is often characterised by a sudden and drastic change in behaviour due to an event or abrupt realisation. The concept of ‘crisis’ directly relates to the differing nature of one’s personality, which includes a change in morals, relationships, values and principles (Brim, 1976). It is proposed that this change may occur due it being the first time a man has reflected on his life and achievements and further compares them to the goals he had as a young male (Tamir, 1982). Brim’s Theories of the male mid-life crisis (1976) concludes that thereShow MoreRelatedThe Persistence Of Temperament And Personality1469 Words   |  6 PagesTemperament and Personality. 12. October. 2015 Abstract This paper will explore the topic of temperament and personality in developmental psychology. I will provide definitions, statistics and examples to explain what temperament is then following what personality is. After drawing the connection between temperament and personality I will conclude that although temperament is the building block to what results a person’s personality it does not mean personality is unchangeableRead MoreErik Erikson s Explanation Of Psychosocial Development1504 Words   |  7 PagesErik Erikson s explanation of psychosocial development is one of the best-known theories of personality in psychology. The term psychosocial development is the pattern of change in emotions, personality and social relationship (â€Å"A Child’s World† 10). Erikson believed that the achievements and failures of earlier stages influence later stages, whereas later stages change and transform earlier ones. His theory shows the impact on social relationships thro ughout one’s entire life. Each individualRead MoreThe Relationship Between Essentialist And Contextualist Standpoints On Personality Continuity866 Words   |  4 PagesPersonality tends to refer to a unique, systemic amalgamation of characteristics and traits that define an individual (Mayer, 2007). However, contesting views on the specifics of this definition inform varied perspectives on the malleability or permanence of personality throughout life; while Mayer (2007) has further described personality as a ‘developing system’, others, such as Pervin, Cervone, John (2005), state that it must prescribe ‘consistent patterns’ in cognition and behaviour. The resultantRead MoreThe Psychosocial Development Of Infants And Children Essay1589 Words   |  7 PagesThe psychosocial development of infants and children is a topic that has been studied by many. Per the Psychology textbook by Ciccarelli, personality and the formation of relationships begins wit h psychological and social development during infancy and childhood (p.328). Personality is shown through temperament, a child’s temperament in relation to their primary caregiver’s temperament will determine what style of attachment the child forms with the caregiver (p.330). Attachment is very importantRead More7 Stages of Development1002 Words   |  5 PagesThese stages include infancy, early childhood, middle childhood, adolescence, early adulthood, middle adulthood and old age. Infancy is recognized as the stage of life from a human s birth up until he or she learns how to speak: generally until the age of one or two. During this stage, the child transitions from a dependent toddler to a relatively active child; he or she is typically able to crawl, roll over and walk. In terms of physical development, the stage of infancy witnesses the most growthRead MoreLifespan Development945 Words   |  4 Pages* Lifespan development is the field tha examine pattern of growth, change, and stability in behavior. (womb to tomb) * Major topical Areas (Physical Dev., Cognitive Dev., Personality Dev., Social Dev.) * Physical- Body and the brain. * Cognitive- Growth and behavior * Personality- Stability and change * Social- interaction and relationships grow * Cultural factors and developmental diversity * Broad factors * Orientation toward individualism orRead MoreAttachment Theory Implied That The Quality Of Infancy Attachment Patterns1590 Words   |  7 Pagestheory implied that the quality of infancy attachment patterns is consistent and continue to influence later development in relationship experiences. The first major article of Roisman et al. (2005) supported this statement, by investigating the correlation between participants’ infancy attachment and their behaviour in current romantic relationships. Data was drawn from a longitudinal cohort, where participants’ initial relationships were assessed in the infancy of 12 months by Strange SituationsRead MoreErikson s Psychosocial Theory : Development Of Ego Identity1293 Words   |  6 PagesErikson’s psychosocial theory is the development of ego identity. Ego identity is the conscious sense of self that we develop through social interaction. The ego was taken from Freud’s theory. Erikson added three stag es to Freud’s psychosexual theory. His theory has a total of eight major stages. The stages begin with infancy and end with old age. In this essay, I will discuss, the major components of Erikson’s psychosocial theory as well as the strengths and limitations of his theory. I will alsoRead MoreLife Stages And The Four Main Types Of Growth And Development942 Words   |  4 PagesGrowth and development begins at birth and ends at death and during an entire lifetime, individuals have needs that must be met. The following are the life stages and the four main types of growth and development. 1. Infancy---- infancy is the new born begin age birth to 1 year old and he/ she experience a degree of familiarity and begins to trust the world around him/ her. a. The Physical development- rolls over, crawl, walk, and grab things. b. Mental development—responds to cold, hunger, andRead MoreThe Formation Of Secure Attachments With The Primary Caregiver1616 Words   |  7 PagesAttachment from infancy to childhood). Yet, attachments, in this case insecure ones, are not the only reason as to why we develop into the individuals we are. There are other causes that are unrelated to attachment that explain our later development. In this discussion, the primary caregiver will be the mother. Attachment is considered vital for later life in terms of social development. Evidence for this was provided by Waters et al. (1979); children who were securely attached in their infancy years

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Inconvenient Truth and the Global Warming Swindle Free Sample

Question: How do these Movies both Educate and Mislead the Public? Answer: Global warming has evolved to be a controversial topic. Scientists globally have postulated divergent views regarding global warming phenomena. In the recent past two documentaries, an Inconvenient Truth' and The Great Global Warming Swindle' have been released to the public to represent these divergent views. The Inconvenient Truth' was released in 2006, it was presented by Al Gore, the former American Vice-President and directed by Davis Guggenheim while The Great Global Warming Swindle' was released in 2007 and was directed and produced by Martin Durkin. The objective of this essay, therefore, is to discuss how the movies An Inconvenient Truth' and The Great Global Warming Swindle' educate and mislead the public. Both movies the "Inconvenient Truth" and "The Global Warming Swindle" are centred on the global warming and its effects. Conversely, the two movies are divergent in data presentation and in purpose. For example, in the An Inconvenient Truth' global warming is purely anthropogenic and its repercussions are explicit worldwide. However, The Global Warming Swindle" argues that global warming is a result of a natural cause but acknowledges its presence. The two movies confirm to the public that global warming and its effects are a reality. Similarly, these two movies are instrumental in educating the public on the relation between Carbon (IV) oxide production and the temperature. On the same note, these documentaries sensitize the public on climate change and its potential consequences to mankind (Nolan, 2010). On the other hand, the two documentaries mislead the public through data presentation. For example, Inconvenient Truth argues that the disappearance of the snow on Mt. Kilimanjaro in the East Africa is as a result of global warming (Inconvenient Truth, 2006). This claim lacks scientific evidence to illustrate such a fact. Similarity, the movie asserts that melting of ice in the Greenland and the West Antarctica was to happen soon. "The Global Warming Swindle," on the other hand, misleads the public by asserting that global warming is entirely a natural occurrence with no human interference. Similarly, it also misleads the public by claiming that release of the industrial or greenhouse Carbon (IV) oxide does not contribute to the rise of the global temperatures (The Global Warming Swindle, 2007). Both documentaries therefore misinformed the public through the use of inaccurate data. In conclusion, both movies are potential sources of information on global warming and its effects. Nevertheless, after watching the two documentaries, it is not easy to differentiate propaganda from the truth. However, the movies are vital to the public especially in understanding how global warming and its effects are closely linked to the political context (Upadhyay, 2008). Important to note is that global warming scientists are in consensus that climate change is factual. They also agree that the world is warmer today that it was in 1880 and they attribute this rise in temperatures to both human activities and natural causes. Similarly, they agree that production of Carbon (IV) oxide is on the increase due to human activities. Lastly, global warming scientists agree that Carbon (IV) oxide is responsible for the rise in the global temperatures. References Inconvenient Truth. (2006). [DVD] U.S.A: Davis Guggenheim. Nolan, J. M. (2010). " An Inconvenient Truth" Increases Knowledge, Concern, and Willingness to Reduce Greenhouse Gases. Environment and Behavior. Upadhyay, J. R. (2008). Global Warming: Documentary War and Manipulation of the Masses. The Global Warming Swindle. (2007). [DVD] Britain: Martin Durkin

Saturday, April 11, 2020

10 Most Exciting Outdoor Blogs

10 Most Exciting Outdoor Blogs Are you in love with wide open spaces? Are you always in for a bit of adventure? If you answered yes to either of these questions, these ten excellent outdoor blogs may be for you. The Big Outside This website/blog, curated by a long-time outdoor enthusiast Michael Lanza, is a wealth of information, not just about wilderness adventures, but about wilderness adventures with children. Michael is a family man and has a unique perspective on adventuring with humans whose age hasn’t cracked the single digits yet. This website has plenty of the standard outdoor fare gear reviews, trips and adventures, advice – but it’s the family adventures section that really sets it apart. US Outdoor Blog The blog is a unique collection of tips articles by the staff of the U.S. Outdoor Store in Portland, Oregon. But rather than being just a place where everything is lumped together, the blog is broken into categories to make it easy to find what you’re looking for. Interested in camping? Click on the â€Å"We Camp† link. Does climbing get your engine going? Check out the â€Å"We Climb† section. Need advice on clothing? â€Å"We Wear† is where you want to be. Hiking? Riding (as in snowboarding)? Skiing? Surfing? Yep, there’s a link for that. Outdoor Alliance Though the suffix on this website (.org) might give you some idea as to its purpose, its mission statement says it all: â€Å"†¦to protect, enhance, and promote the human-powered outdoor recreation experience by uniting the voice of outdoor enthusiasts to conserve America’s public lands.† brings together the likes of American Whitewater, American Canoe Association, Access Fund, International Mountain Bicycling Association, Winter Wildlands Alliance, and the Mountaineers with the goal of protecting public lands. The blog also provides the outlook for various outdoor adventures. Love the Outdoors A back-to-basics website (format, not living off the land) with a wealth of information for all your outdoor adventure needs. Though its not full of pictures and vivid Internet bells and whistles, it offers plenty of advice on everything from beginning mountain biking to avoiding wildlife habitat when finding a campsite and freshwater fishing. The Planet D is another unique perspective on the outdoor/adventure lifestyle. Long-married couple Dave and Deb left their jobs in the Toronto Film Industry to start a life of adventure and travel. Experience round-the-world adventures through their eyes. Mr And Mrs Adventure Newly-married couple Drew and Brittany left behind their California lives to travel far and wide, experience adventure, and live in a van (not down by the river). is another unique perspective amidst the mass of outdoor websites. What are the challenges of being married and constantly on the road? This site is filled with great advice on living the nomadic life and finding adventure wherever you are. The Campsite Blog A foray into the spiritual as well as the outdoors. is all about creative ideas that spur adventure, travel experiences, and subjects of conversation and debate. To quote the blog itself: â€Å"The Campsite is all about sharing and learning from one another just as we would sitting around that cozy campfire.† But is about more than just finding yourself outdoors (and yes, there is a double meaning in â€Å"finding yourself†), its â€Å"In The Backpack† section provides a wide range of articles that will help you in your journey into yourself and into the wilderness. Dirtbag Darling A great resource for the outdoor adventure lifestyle from former surf-magazine editor Johnie Gall. The site is organized by activity (water, land, snow) and places (east coast, west coast, mid-west, south international) and includes how-to guides, gear reviews, a journal, and a section entitled, â€Å"Defenders of Fun†. An interesting site with advice and musings from a girl who’s not afraid to live in a van. Adventure Filled An adventure-filled blog from adventure enthusiast Laurie Tewksbury. has the usual gear reviews and how-tos for the outdoor adventurer but it also has some unique perspectives about life and love (of the outdoors). Check out â€Å"52 in 52† about Laurie’s goal of achieving 52 hikes in 52 weeks or â€Å"How to Keep Adventuring When Life Gets in the Way†. Just a Colorado Gal A blog about life and living outdoors (not literally but as much as possible). Blog writer Heather chronicles her adventures around the world, touches on the standard topics of gear and various forms of outdoor activities, and throws in some perspectives on health, fitness, and the state of being away from civilization. So whether you’re new to the lifestyle or a long time adventure-seeker, you’d be hard pressed to go wrong with any of these excellent outdoor blogs.

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Establishing A New Budget Process Accounting Essay Example

Establishing A New Budget Process Accounting Essay Example Establishing A New Budget Process Accounting Essay Establishing A New Budget Process Accounting Essay In set uping a new budget procedure, there are important things that should be taking into consideration. The budget procedure provides the medium for finding what authorities services will be provided and how they will be financed, ( Mikesell, 2007:31 ) . The legislative and executive subdivisions have to pass on to make an effectual budget system. The map of a budget procedure is to possess financial control and subject, set strategic precedences, and make an efficient execution of the budget. Division of Powers The budget procedure would be modeled after the federal and other province budgets since they already have an equal foundation of cheques and balances. The first measure is the readying of the budget by the executive subdivision. In the readying phase, the executive subdivision collects petitions such as aˆÂ ¦inputs from operating bureaus, plan staff, and particular undertaking forces, the budget office prepares recommendations for the executive budget, ( Forsythe, 2004:20 ) . The 2nd measure is the acceptance of the budget. In the acceptance phase, Congress has a opportunity to measure and change the budget. After changes, legislators will vote to hold the budget implemented. In most provinces, the governor can so do farther alterations through a line-item veto, ( Forsythe, 2004:20 ) . The concluding measure is theA executionA of the budget. In the executing phase, the budget goes into consequence at the beginning of the financial year.A With the inadvertence from the budget office, bureaus implement disbursement cuts or new plans, assistance payments are made under revised expression, and alterations in revenue enhancements take consequence, ( Forsythe, 2004:20 ) . If any accommodation needs to be made, after execution, the budget officer will do them by supervising the budget. Functions in Budget The primary participants in put to deathing a budget are runing bureaus, main executive, and legislators. The operating bureaus spend money for the bringing of authorities services. The bureaus focus on the patronage they serve, ( Mikesell, 2007:62 ) . The main executive office hires budgets specializers to execute the undertaking on behalf of the executive subdivision. Budget analysts are to be consistent with the main executive office and equilibrate the budget. Whereas bureaus have a clientele orientation, the main executive must equilibrate the involvements of the entire population, ( Mikesell, 2007:63 ) . Legislators are non focused on an, overall position of bureaus or bureaus plan. The legislators are concentrating on their components, who they represent, which is a narrow part of the population. In order to be elected, legislators need to take attention of the components precedences. Budget Format To make a budget that establishes answerability and controllability that has equal flexibleness in doing budget determinations, a combination of public presentation and policy/planning attack is in order. With the policy/planning attack added to the public presentation budget, lawgivers can hold answerability and control with sufficient flexibleness in budget determinations. In the visible radiation of big literature on public presentation budget reforms in the last two decennaries, as explained in the undermentioned paragraphs, it is observed that public presentation budget reform can heighten communicating between budget histrions, better public direction in footings of efficiency and effectivity, ease more informed budgetary decision-making, and achieve high transparence and answerability, ( Shah and Shen 2007:151 ) . The budget format will assist the authorities to communicates and trust with their components. Common Schemes When covering with budgets, the authorities must non undervalue or overrate the allowances and disbursals, disregarding the demand for nest eggs, overlooking the unanticipated events, misidentifying annual disbursals, and neglecting small but important information. If the authorities follows these schemes, so it will make a more unafraid budget. One of the first schemes that need to be taken is cultivation of an active patronage for aid in covering with both legislative assembly and the main executive, ( Mikesell, 2007:64 ) . With the coaction, electives functionaries are guaranting disbursals be prepared within the degree of appropriation, in aA methodA that comply with statute law aim, guarantying the greatest efficiency in supplying plan, and undertakings to the citizens. The 2nd most good scheme is to hold the bureau make assurance between authorities functionaries and statute law. Confidence is critical because, in the budget procedure, many elements of plan defence must deduce from the judgements of the decision makers, ( Mikesell, 2007:65 ) . It isA extremelyA significantA that they have assurance since it leads to swear. In decision, it isA essentialA to hold aA proactiveA budgetA withA coaction that acknowledges be aftering, control, andA evaluationA are different ( necessitating different tools ) . The budget should be a logical and realisticA that concentrates on the resources that components need. The executive subdivision shouldA createA multi-year budgets to run into deadlines and ensureA awarenessA of future disbursals. The budget should be easier to pull off, by the decrease of histories. The ground why the authorities should follow these recommendations is that it holds them more responsible. Question # 5 Individual Income revenue enhancements are one of the most hard revenue enhancements to roll up. One of the ways to roll up revenue enhancements includes the authorities altering Torahs to guarantee that taxpayers are paying their revenue enhancements. Lawgivers can writeA legislationA that would penalize persons that cheat on their revenue enhancements. In some instances, a signifier ofA punishmentA should beA severeA such asA captivity. In add-on, the Internal Revenue Service canA enhanceA their plans to increase aggregation. The bureau proceeded with aggressive chase of these aims, and shortly congressional hearings showed dissatisfaction with avid attempts to better conformity and media histories of taxpayer torment, ( Mikesell, 2007:222 ) . One of the disadvantages to roll uping revenue enhancements is the economic deformation. Economic deformation gives the authorities theA privilegeA of penalizing or rewardingA certainA concern, industries and persons. This can ensue in concerns traveling to other states, where their concerns receive revenue enhancement advantages. This brings considerable economic loss to the state and decay in the competitory place of American concerns in the universe economic system, ( Mikesell, 2007:339 ) . Government should notA discourageA competition in the state because it helps the economic system, promote buyerA buying power, and assistance in the trade shortage. Since most people do non to the full grok the revenue enhancement system, people are non obliged to follow with the system. Voluntary conformity is higher, regardless of enforcement T attempt by the revenue enhancement governments, if taxpayers understand what they are supposed to make to follow, ( Mikesell, 2007:497 ) . Merely a little group of experts canA fullyA understand the complexness of the revenue enhancement system. The single income revenue enhancement is so complicated that it violates the transparence. Simplification would do the revenue enhancement more transparent and would cut down its aggregation costs, ( Mikesell, 2007:338 ) . Furthermore, citizens demand more transparence. If there more transparence, so people are less likely toA avoidA their revenue enhancements. When people know where there money is traveling, citizens are more likely to pay their revenue enhancements. Peoples would be willing to for services they believe in such as military, instruction, and other services. The authorities should get down by simplifying the revenue enhancement codification. The authorities should besides increase transparence and encourage concern to pay their revenue enhancements by inducements. This would promote taxpayers to pay their revenue enhancements. Question # 7 With mounting federal shortages, the authorities is seeking to happen ways to cutA plans and acquire eliminate of extra waste. Performance budget is utilized as a usher to bring out waste and cut down disbursals. In add-on, aˆÂ ¦public functionaries [ might see this budget ] as a manner to warrant their parts to the community and perchance to spread out their budgets, ( Mikesell, 2007:205 ) . Some advantages to this budget formatA include commanding costs and gauging future disbursals. On the other manus, the disadvantages include the cost associated with this type of budget format, and it does non see whether the activityA is worth it or non. Another disadvantage is politicians being informal with the budget because they do non utilize it frequently. Even though the authorities usage this budget format, it is difficult to mensurate the consequences. Unless the authorities truly will utilize them as an built-in portion of public direction and decision-making, they are non lik ely to be a worthy usage of authorities resources, ( Mikesell, 2007: 205 ) . The usage of public presentation measuring in budgeting entails alterations in authoritiess operations, forces, constructions, and even civilizations which ever lead to a power battle and power transportation and, therefore, opposition from those who are negatively affected, ( Shah and Shen 2007: 24 ) . If lawgivers are concentrating on budget reconciliation and being responsible for outgos of publicA budgeting, so they will take different budget formats that can be easy influenced and analyze all parts of outgos and grosss. There is a power displacement from legislators to the executive subdivision. As a consequence of the power-shift, authorities should do certain legislators still contribute to the procedure ofA the budgetA to guarantee success. With components desiring toA holdA their elected functionaries more answerability, the authorities must seek for ways to do the components content. In order to run into these demands, the authoritiess have been more incline to utilize public presentation budget. Supplying information about public sector public presentation can fulfill the populace s demand to cognize, and could besides be a utile tool for authoritiess to measure their public presentation, ( Public Affairs Division, Public Affairs and Communications Directorate, 2008 ) . Performance budgeting is a tool used to mensurate consequences, while bettering efficiency. Performance budgets emphasize agency-activity public presentation aims and achievements, non the purchase of resources. Budgets present the cost of executing measureable accomplishment units during the budget twelvemonth, so the budget procedure has the double function of supplying financess and set uping public presentation aims, ( Mikesell, 2002:201 ) .

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Republic of Irelands economy over the past three years Essay

Republic of Irelands economy over the past three years - Essay Example However, this economic boom started slowing down in 2001, two years later it resumed and then in 2006 it slowed down again. Efforts in this essay will be directed towards the post 'Celtic tiger' years. (O'Kane, 2007) Between the years 2005 and 2006, the government was successful in maintaining economic growth. However, after 2006 to 2008, there was a reduction in the economy and there are numerous factors that caused these increase and reduction. Between 2005 and 2006, the economy hade resurgence because the government dealt with some of the problems the country had encountered before and this was aided by some external factors. At that time, (2005-2006), the rate of economic growth in Ireland was over four percent while other countries such as France, Germany and Italy in the European Union had economic growth rates of between one percent and three percent. Ireland had been struggling with Foot and Mouth Disease at a certain point but this was dealt with accordingly and by 2005 and 2006, the problem had been eradicated thus boosting sales in the primary sector. (Clinch et al, 2008) Another factor that contributed to this economic growth in the first year under analysis could be because of increases in property values. Consequently, there was greater employment in the construction sector. But other external factors also contributed to the high economic growth rate. ... It also produces Apple, IBM, and HP makes. Therefore technology is a crucial factor in Ireland's economy. Ireland was a strong economic partner to the United States; therefore any factors affecting its partnmers were likely to trickle down to the country. Four years ago, the US had experienced the September eleven attacks, but by 2005, this had reversed and led to US' economic recovery. The government also encouraged further investments in industry, science and technology between 2005 and 2006. This was seen by the numerous international firms that have set up branches in Ireland. One such company is Google; others are Intel, Abbott Laboratories and Bell Labs. In line with these developments, the Ireland government decide to establish a body known as Science Foundation Ireland which was formed to assist science bodies in the Republic. The government had created an SSIA savings scheme and funds had matured. Consumers had been cushioned in their expenditure and this boosted growth in the retail sector. (CIA, 2006) But in the years 2006 and 2008, there has been resurgence in economic growth. This could be as a result of a recession in property values. Because of availability of labour and growing demand for homes after the Celtic Tiger years, the Republic started building homes aggressively. By 2006, homes had reached 90, 000 which is almost half of what the UK has yet the ratio of populations between the UK and Ireland is 15:1. This means that by 2007 and 2008, there were excess homes compared to the demand. Rent declined and there was less income coming from that sector. Another factor that led to this decrease in economic growth was the expansion of the European Union. During 2007, Romania and Bulgaria entered